Despite that everyone in the new republic was aware of and detested the spirits of faction, as the result of the debates sparking in the 1790s over matters of international and commercial policies, political parties began to form. Federalists, led by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton, supported a strong central government, an emphasis on mercantilism, protectionism, and a loose interpretation of the constitution. Their voters consisted of northerners, wealthy merchants, sailors, and free black men. The Democratic-Republicans, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, tended to favor strong state governments, supported farming, free trade, and a strict interpretation of the constitution. Their voters tended to be southerners, wealthy planters, yeomen, and white male immigrants. By 1799, the Federalists had made themselves unpopular due to the Alien and Sedition Acts and controversial Quasi-War with France, and the hostility between Adams and Hamilton would split the party in two. In the Election of 1800, Jefferson’s emergence as president, obtained in part due to the Three-Fifth’s Clause, ensured Federalists would never hold the executive office again, though the party would remain active at state level well into the Jacksonian age.